Chickens of the Dominant: their characteristics and features of breeding
Both the large farmer and the owner of a small private farmstead are interested in maintaining their economy at a stable level or in improving the economic effect of their production. For this, conditions of detention are being modernized, a search is underway for new ways to improve performance, in particular, new breeds of domestic hens that are more resistant to external factors are being developed. One of them is the Czech Ddominant breed.
Dominant chickens owe their origin to the Czech breeder Zdenek Selma, therefore the Czech Republic is rightfully considered their homeland. Dominant is a young breed, it appeared in the 90s of the last century. It got its name due to the then unique resistance to external factors and numerous advantages over other breeds.
The goal of the scientist and his assistants was to obtain the most hardy and productive chicken, which could be used for both eggs and meat. Today it is one of the most popular breeds among poultry farmers in more than 30 countries of Europe, the USA and South America.Scientists are still arguing whether the Dominant is a separate breed or cross.
Did you know? Cross is a hybrid obtained by crossing different types and subspecies of egg and meat chicken breeds. This process is supervised by livestock specialists and is called cross-building.
Czech breeders have tried to Dominants combine the best qualities of crosses. This is displayed both in appearance (interesting and colorful plumage distinguishes them from other chickens), and in character (calm and complaisant disposition), and in simple content requirements.
Thanks to these factors, Dominants are the favorites of most farmers.
Birds of the Dominant breed have a bright decorative appearance. They are large, fleshy, downed, their forms are strictly outlined. They are characterized by a low abdomen, a large dense trunk and muscular tibia, which clearly indicates not only egg-laying function, but also meat.
Important! Birds of the Dominant breed with a black color are considered the most egg-laying and productive.
The head is small with a bright scarlet crest and earrings. Plumage is diverse.Consider in more detail the characteristic of external indicators:
|Neck||Short and wide|
|Chest||Tight and wide|
|Wings||Large and close fitting|
|Tail||Short and straight|
|Paws||Short, wide set|
|Plumage and color||The plumage is thick, with densely placed silky feathers. Color from white with a gray blotch to black|
Dominants are one of the most productive breeds. Their egg production is significantly higher than other breeds. And thanks to their impressive weight, even at the age of 5 months they can go for juicy and nutritious meat.
In addition, the meat of the Dominants will not be sinewy and fibrous, as they lead a lazy lifestyle. Chickens reach their highest productivity in 1.5 years.
Dominants have a calm character, are not awkward and obedient. It also affects their sedentary behavior. Birds get along among themselves in a herd, even with crowding. Roosters can take on individuals of other breeds and are not prone to aggression.
Also, hens are quite loud.Sometimes the quotes can be nervous after being transported to a new place or in the case of a change of owner, however, in general, their character is flexible, which is another argument in favor of choosing this breed.
Advantages and disadvantages
This breed has a wide range of advantages, which deserves the preference of farmers.
- Among the advantages, we highlight the main ones:
- Bright appearance. This species of poultry will decorate the owner’s compound and delight the eye: pockmarked plumage and red scallops distinguish them from other inhabitants of the courtyard.
- Persistent immunity. Dominant chickens can carry most of the diseases common chickens experience.
- Adaptation to the climate. The birds are frost-resistant and feel good in any weather. The only nuance that is desirable to observe in the chicken coop is air humidity, it should be in the range of 65–80%, and walking in the sun is also mandatory.
- No special nutritional requirements. Chickens are unpretentious to eat, they can eat the same as regular chickens, however, due to increased egg production, they need vitamins every day, as the chicken body spends most of the beneficial elements on egg formation.
- Unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention. Cleanliness, dryness, order and sufficient space - all the same, what other types of birds need.
- Calm nature. Non-conflict and calm temperament distinguish the breed from others.
- High performance. The special productivity of the masonry is the main advantage in choosing this type of chicken, because they are carried every day.
- High-quality meat product. The meat of Dominants has good taste from the 4th – 5th month of life.
- The disadvantages of the breed:
- Weak instinct of incubation. Oddly enough, but the representatives of this cross often do not have the patience to fully incubate.
- Biting eggs and relatives in the cold season.
There are 12 varieties of Dominant. All of them were obtained by crossing different crosses. And now breeders are breeding new subspecies. However, their characteristics remain common, they differ only in plumage. Let's consider them in more detail.
This species was obtained by crossing Brown Leghorn from a rapidly fledging and slowly fledging population. Tricolor D-301 is resistant to climatic conditions and is common in Slovakia, Poland, Latin America and others. The color of the eggs is white and cream. The growing period is 18 weeks. Characterized by fast plumage. Vitality - 94–96%.
This is the most popular and most persistent species. It is able to withstand large temperature differences and does not require the creation of special conditions. The black dominant is distributed both in the CIS countries and in South Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Its vitality reaches 97%. Also, laying eggs of this species are the largest and can reach 70 g. The annual egg production rate is 310 days. The color of the eggs is brown and dark. It was obtained by crossing brown Rhodeland with speckled Plymouthrock.
Amber (red striped) D-159
Amber D-159 (or red striped) is a bird obtained by crossing Rodailand striped and Rodailand brown. The peculiarity is an interesting color of plumage: red with an admixture of specks. The color of the shell is brown. Vitality - 94–96%. After birth, the chickens can be distinguished by sex due to the shade of plumage.
This species is considered the most beautiful in color of plumage. This happened due to breeding between the speckled Plymouth Rock and Rhodailand brown. The color of plumage varies between light gray and golden tones with uniform white blotches. The color of the eggs is white or pale cream. Egg production reaches 300 pcs. in year. Vitality - 94–96%.
According to farmers, this species is suitable for industrial production along with the Black Dominant, and sometimes exceeds its performance, as it can be even more resistant to extreme climatic conditions. He gained his popularity in Sweden, Italy, Ukraine, Great Britain, Slovakia, Poland, as well as Latin America and Asia. The color of the eggshell is dark brown. The average egg weight is 62 g. Vitality is 97%. It has an interesting plumage color with a smooth transition from light gray from below to dark gray from above.
Representatives of the Brown Dominant 102 were bred due to the cross of Rhodailand brown and Rhodailand white, due to which the hens have a saturated brown color, and the roosters are white. The color of the shell is brown. Vitality - 94%. Chickens of this species carry 315 eggs per year on average and are actively used in large-scale industrial production of the cell type.
This is a productive hybrid that has spread throughout Switzerland, Slovakia, Poland and others. Productivity is 300 eggs per year. It is bred in ecological and household systems. The eggs are brown. Daily chickens are not sexed by the color of their plumage. The survival rate of offspring is 93–96%. It was obtained by crossing the rocks Rhodailand brown and Sussex.
Growing this species is popular among farmers along with the Black Dominant, as Sussex has strong immunity, is resistant to abrupt climate changes and is able to survive in harsh conditions. The vitality of this species sometimes reaches 98%. Hens have an interesting color with white-silver plumage. The eggs are brown. Sussex appeared due to the crossing of the same progenitors. Clutch can reach up to 320 eggs per year.
Representatives of the Dominant Red D-853 have a red-red color and average productivity indicators. Mostly suitable for growing at home. Distributed in Slovakia, Nepal, Ethiopia, etc. Productivity - 300 pcs. eggs per year with brown shell. Vitality - 94–96%. Unpretentious to habitat conditions.
Birds of the Dominant breed are unpretentious to the conditions of detention and do not require additional arrangement. It is convenient to breed birds in large industrial enterprises, private farms and on farmsteads in rural areas. The basic requirements for the premises for keeping do not differ from the conditions for other breeds.
The only nuance that must be foreseen is the mandatory presence of artificial lighting during periods of short daylight hours.
The main requirements for the maintenance in the room are cleanliness, dryness, climate control, free space. At home, chicken coops, aviaries, and poultry houses are arranged for birds. They are best organized in a shady area. The area is calculated based on the ratio of 4-5 individuals per 1 sq. m
It is best to lay the litter all over the floor. It can be straw mixed with limestone. The layer should be lush and soft. Ideal would be the device of perches for each clam, because they rush almost every day. The best place to install them is the side walls of the house.
Important! In no case do not allow humidity in the premises for keeping birds. Since dampness and heat are the main causes of infections. The litter should be periodically changed, and the premises ventilated (avoiding drafts).
The house should be kept clean, and the perches and feeders should be arranged so that they do not injure the hens. Since even the slightest bruises and scratches or cuts on stones can cause viruses to enter the fledgling parts of the skin.
In winter, freezing should not be allowed. When freezing temperatures appear, it is recommended to install artificial heating.
Patio for walks
Walking in the fresh air is a must for any type of poultry, since the sun is an additional source of vitamin D, which is especially important for laying hens. It is not necessary to block the space for walking with a fence, since, thanks to the calm disposition, Dominants rarely run out of it.
Despite the fact that Dominants have a lazy temperament, a restriction in the ability to move can lead to leg diseases, such as: gout, “limestone foot”, arthritis, knemidocoptosis, etc. To prevent this, the birds need at least a small, but room for movement.
Did you know? Chickens are one of the few species of birds that do not need their own nest; they can lay an egg in any nest nearby.
Also, during walking the birds get additional plant food containing useful trace elements. The courtyard for walks needs to be equipped with feeders, create recreation areas from hay, shavings or grass and avoid the appearance of dirt and debris.
Feeding troughs, drinking bowls, zone baths
The necessary equipment for water and feed can be done both independently and already ready to order. It is best if they are made of wood or tightly sealed metal. It can be troughs, buckets. The bird should have easy access to them.Feeding troughs and drinking bowls are best installed on bedding, which also needs to be changed periodically. Agricultural stores also offer feeders and drinking bowls made of vacuum or plastic. They can be bunker, tray, bucket type.
Zone baths must be organized both in the house and in the courtyard. They can be made of sand or ash and birds need them for personal hygiene. In such baths, clay or peat can be added. Since hens do not like to "take baths" alone, it is necessary to calculate the amount of space for at least 3 individuals.
Shedding and egg laying break
Any type of chicken is susceptible to molting. This process begins in the autumn period and lasts from 1 to 2 months. At this time, the chicken body is depleted and loses a lot of vitamins. In this regard, the productivity and egg laying of a laying hen is reduced.
Her body is weakened and is not able to form a full-fledged masonry process, therefore, during this period, Dominant chickens decrease their effective indicators, but do not cease to rush. It is very important at this time to organize additional feeding with vitamins and increase the dose of protein and calcium in the feed.
Thanks to this, the laying hens will quickly recover and return to their previous shape.
What to feed
The diet of Dominant chickens is the same as that of any other bird species. Nutrition includes three meals a day (it can be prepared at home and supplemented with purchased feed), self-extraction of pasture and enrichment of the diet with vitamins and macronutrients found in vegetables, cereals, dairy products.
Vitamins can also be purchased at specialized pharmacies and pet stores.
Representatives of this cross are not picky about food, but diet control is an important component in caring for them. It is recommended to feed three times a day. It is best to feed adult chickens with wet mixtures of cereal, oilcake, bran and grain with the addition of fresh or boiled vegetables (for example, boiled carrots, corn, potatoes).
Additional vitamins of the bird are obtained during the walk, eating pasture, so in the winter it is necessary to add dried herbs. Chalk can serve as a source of calcium.
Both in the house and in the summer, containers with shells or crushed shells should be installed on the yard. Mandatory is also control over the constant availability of clean water.
In the first weeks of their lives, chickens are especially vulnerable, so special nutrition should be provided for them.At first, they are not accustomed to feed instinct, so during this period they require special care and care. At this age, protein is especially important for them, so they are given finely grated cottage cheese, yogurt.
A wonderful source of protein is earthworms. The diet is supplemented with chopped boiled eggs, boiled grated vegetables, small grains (for example, millet), chopped grass.Especially carefully monitor the purity of water. An important point is also hygiene and preventing droppings from getting into food. As they grow older, the chickens will be ready for a smooth transition to an adult diet.
Despite the fact that the Dominant is a breed that is distinguished by good health and good adaptation to external factors, it requires no less care than other breeds. Only constant care and maintaining the herd's health through proper nutrition and the creation of better conditions will be able to maintain the productivity of birds and increase it.