Chickens Leningrad chintz: characteristics, breeding at home
As you know, in domestic and large farms the most popular are the universal breeds of chickens that produce high-quality eggs and lean, tasty meat. One of these varieties is the unpretentious Leningrad chintz laying hens, which will be discussed in this article today.
The chintz breed of layers was bred in Leningrad, the All-Union Research Institute of Poultry. Successful specimens for crossing and obtaining the variety were New Hampshires, Poltava clayey and black-mottled Australorps.
The breed was entered into the official register in 1985, where it was indicated by the result of a successful experiment, which is not surprising, because the pretty-looking hens belong to the universal, decorative-egg-meat group.
Did you know? The ancestors of the first domesticated laying hens are the Banking jungle chicken, who lived in Asia. Today, the chicken family has grown to such a size and variety that it is hardly possible to calculate the exact number of breeds. European poultry farmers claim that there are about 180 bred species, but biologists say that there are many more.
In the outward appearance, character and productive qualities of the Leningrad chintz bird, only the positive features of all breeds included in the selection best fit.
Many farmers claim that it is possible to fall in love with this breed not only for its high productivity, but also simply for the special “outfit” that they got after crossing. The hens are distinguished by their miniature, grace, proud posture and beautiful decorative and colorful plumage. Let's consider external features in more detail:
|Earrings (auricles)||Scarlet Pink|
|Beak||Pointy pinkish yellow|
|Wings||Well developed and tight to the body|
|Paws||Direct and steady. The color is darker than on the body|
|Color||In the color range of the plumage, white, black and brown-reddish shades alternate|
The "chintz" birds have a balanced and flexible character, they quickly get along with other thoroughbred birds. During walks, chickens are mobile, curiously explore the territory, like to delve into the ground in areas and conduct quiet voice “roll call”. They are not inclined to tantrums.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Advantages of the breed:
- high resistance to low temperatures. Excellent survival and reproduction in any climatic conditions;
- unpretentiousness in food;
- strong immune system, a small percentage of morbidity;
- high survival rate among chickens (95–96%);
- unpretentiousness to living conditions;
- fast maturity;
- good productive indicators;
- nice decorative appearance of individuals.
- The only drawback of the breed can be considered a fairly small prevalence. There are few hatching eggs on sale, as a result of which many farms cannot acquire such a beautiful and valuable variety.
Maintenance and care
It is not difficult to take care of “calico” birds, however, for the most productive future productivity, they should be placed in well-organized living conditions. First of all, in the existing room it is necessary to properly position and fix roosts, nests, feeders and drinking bowls, then form a safe walking yard and take care of a healthy diet.
Chicken house equipment
Properly plan the internal arrangement of the chicken coop, at the initial stage, information on the number of individuals will help. The optimal size for 2–4 hens is 1 square meter.
Highlights and recommended parameters of "housing" for chintz breed of hens:
- Chicken nests should be located at the same level, in accordance with the number of birds in the room. The best option is for 1 nest of 5 layers. The bottoms of structures should be covered with non-slip material, for example, with rubber or rubber litter, and substitutes for the structures themselves to exclude the possibility of falling.
- For roosts, it is important to select only peeled and rounded poles - this will protect miniature birds from various kinds of injuries.
- The floor must meet a certain range of requirements: safety, moisture resistance, environmental friendliness, high strength, cleanliness. For many years, the best material is well-sanded wood without bulging chips and nail heads.
- As a material for litter, as a rule, straw or wood sawdust is used. The initial layer is 8 cm, however, to create freshness, additional material is periodically layered on it. Complete litter replacement is carried out when the straw thickness reaches 30 cm.
- The optimal temperature regime inside the barn should be in the range from +12 to +17 degrees. In winter, in order to avoid a sharp thermal drop, you can use some auxiliary heating items: electric heaters, infrared lamps, heat guns, stoves.
Important! Despite resistance to various diseases, chintz chickens can suffer from various bacterial infections caused by the lack of timely cleaning and disinfection of the chicken coop. Therefore, it is extremely important to adhere to a certain scheme: washing and treating feeders and drinkers with boiling water, as well as cleaning surfaces - every 1-2 days, cleaning with the use of disinfectants - at least twice a month.
It is also necessary to remember about winter artificial lighting, because the length of daylight hours in the chicken coop should not be less than 12 hours. Otherwise, even in highly productive “chintz” laying hens, the indicators and quality of egg production will decrease.
Patio for walks
A special paddock is necessary so that the birds do not linger in cramped conditions, breathe fresh air and have the opportunity to dig and search for food on their own. If the farmer neglects walking, he is guaranteed not to receive quality products, the hens will become lethargic and begin to hurt.It is also unsafe to freely let out the flock - curious individuals can scatter in different directions, try to peck all closely growing vegetable crops and simply “soil” the entire territory.
Recommendations for arranging the courtyard:
- the pen should be fenced with a metal mesh, at least 2 meters high;
- inside there is a convenient feeder with a small amount of gravel and the preferred compound feed;
- in an organized walking area, small and non-toxic plants must necessarily germinate.
Important! So that the chickens do not crowd all together near the installed feeder, the length of the tank should be calculated in accordance with the number of living individuals.
Feeding troughs and drinking bowls
Feed containers can be wooden or metal, in the case of our thoroughbred chickens it is better to choose 2 options at once:
- use a tree feeder for dry food, shell rock, fine gravel, chalk and other additives;
- metal containers are suitable for wet food. In addition, they will easily be cleaned of any contamination and not spoil from disinfection.
Recently, siphon drinkers for poultry have become popular at numerous zoos. Of them, practically no water is poured or sprayed, even when several individuals drink from the tank at once. The factory siphon design can be placed in the corner of the chicken coop, and if desired, easily rearranged to any other place.
As a rule, periodic dumping of feathers occurs in chintz chickens in connection with normal natural processes in the body. Shedding begins and ends according to a certain schedule, directly related to a change in climatic conditions in different seasons (spring – autumn lasts about 50–55 days).
After “baldness” the chickens become a little more restless, the bare skin on their body is sensitive even to light touches, therefore, in this period of time, it is extremely important for the farmer to strengthen the care of laying hens and also consider their diet. Key recommendations for speeding molting with minimal harm to chicken health:
- Try not to touch the birds at all.
- Exclude any stressful situations: moving to a new place, sharing a new individual, etc.
- In the autumn-winter period, extend the daylight hours in the barn to 15 hours.
- Protect individuals from drafts or damp places as much as possible - their weakened immunity in such conditions can malfunction and cause infection.
How to feed an adult herd
Nutrition of adult chickens should consist mainly of special combined zoo-feeds sold in finished form. Do not disdain the birds and the remnants of food from the master's table, connected to other nutrient components.
Approximate proportions for the formation of a normal diet:
- part of cereals - 58-60% (wheat, oats, peas, barley, corn, rye);
- fodder yeast - 5%;
- cake and sunflower meal - 18%;
- meat and bone and fish meal - 16%;
- feed fat - 3%;
- table salt and other mineral additives - 1–1.5%.
Addiction to disease
As noted above, the Leningrad chintz hens are not susceptible to any certain types of ailment, but, unfortunately, like representatives of other breeds, with unscrupulous care they may well catch an infection.
The most common chicken diseases and treatments:
- Salmonellosis Symptoms: lacrimation, foamy excrement, swollen joints, poor appetite and extreme thirst. The source of infection can be: litter, feed, water, air. Salmonellosis must be treated with Furozalidone (about 20 days) and Streptomycin (10 days).
- Coccidiosis Symptoms: lack of appetite, increased thirst, drowsiness, indifference, blue scallop, inflammation of the cloaca, difficulty in moving. They treat the disease with Furacilin.
- Helminthic invasion. Symptoms: disturbed state of the bird, severe diarrhea. Treatment is prescribed by a veterinarian based on the type of helminth.
- Trematodes. Symptoms: increased anxiety, inflamed cesspool, lack of eggshell. The disease is treated with carbon tetrachloride.
- Bronchopneumonia. Symptoms: poor appetite, heavy breathing, copious mucous discharge from the beak. It should be treated with antibiotics: Penicillin and Terramycin.
In order not to treat the listed diseases in the future and to keep the poultry yard in good health as much as possible, it is advisable to constantly adhere to the recommended preventive measures:
- timely vaccination of individuals;
- carefully monitor the cleanliness in the bird's "home", change the flooring, carry out disinfection, do not forget about general cleaning;
- observe cleanliness in feeders and drinking bowls, prevent dropping into the litter containers;
- Throw out moist food not pecked by chickens in a timely manner.
Leningrad chintz chickens have an excellent instinct for incubation, paying attention to un hatched offspring, they may not be distracted by other matters at all. However, if the farmer decides not to take up a responsible hen, an incubator is perfect for developing and hatching healthy chickens.
The egg incubation process consists of several important steps:
- Checking and choosing good instances for bookmarking (ovoscopy). The process is the transillumination of eggs with a beam directed at it from a special device, the goal is to see the contents or to select the required number of specimens without pathologies. Basic requirements: the shell is smooth to the touch, clean and even, the yolk is of an even structure, rounded and located exactly in the center, at the blunt end of the egg there is a small pug, the main contents of a transparent consistency without clots and feathers.
- Bookmark Immediately before incubation, eggs should be kept in a warm room without drafts for 8–12 hours at a temperature of +23 ... + 25 ° С. It is necessary to place copies in the device horizontally. Bookmarking process: warm the incubator to the required temperature, lay out the tray of pre-disinfected eggs, put the tray in the incubator, tightly seal the device.
- Parameters for successful incubation: the optimum temperature in the device is +38.5 ° С, humidity - not lower than 82%. Eggs are turned over in the first 7 days — about 6 times, in the period of 8–14 days — 5–6 times, in 15–18 days –– 4–5 times.
Did you know? Scientists have come to the conclusion that a one-day-old chick has the same skills and reflexes as a three-year-old child.
Embryo development by day:
Normal incubation lasts 21 days, but hatching of chicks can begin on 20-22 days. In the process of biting, the humidity inside the incubation chamber should be maximum, and the temperature should be kept at +37.2 ° С. After hatching, the chickens should be dried, then transferred to a box prepared in advance.
The most important and dangerous period in the life of chintz chickens is the first weeks of life. At this time, the chicks require the greatest attention of the farmer, who should organize the best care for them. After the incubator, the brood should completely dry and move to a spacious cardboard or wooden box where there will be a certain time, get stronger and walk. At the bottom of the “house”, before softening, put soft tissue folded in 2-3 layers.
The first walking of babies must be carried out not less than a week after hatching. On the first day, they can frolic in a safe area for 1–1.5 hours, in the following days, the time for walking can be gradually increased. In the postpartum period, it is also important not to forget about the temperature and light conditions, because newborn chicks have practically no thermoregulation.
Did you know? Hens and cocks have a pretty good memory. One bird is able to remember the external distinguishing features of more than 100 individuals (humans, other birds and animals). In the decision-making process, chickens take into account previously accumulated experience and their knowledge of the environment. Also, smart birds can count, have a certain degree of self-awareness and the ability to manipulate other chickens.
On the first day after the incubator, the temperature should not be lower than +35 ° C, on the next - about +30 ° C. To organize the right uninterrupted source of heat and light, a conventional incandescent bulb will help, which should be placed at a height of 40–45 cm from the floor above the box.
The hatched young animals must be fed 10-12 hours after drying, for the first feeding, a finely chopped boiled egg is perfect.
On the second and subsequent days, the following products are gradually added to the diet:
- finely chopped fresh grass - nettle, dandelion, clover, alfalfa;
- finely chopped root crops;
- cottage cheese lean mass;
- from 4 days in the "menu" you should enter mineral additives in a separate container - shell rock, gravel, wood ash;
- from 1–1.5 months of life - crops.