Antibiotics for cattle: value, dosage and application
The main task of each farmer is to take care of animal health, because it is precisely this criterion that determines the level of efficiency of the farm, and profit, and even pleasure from work. In this article, we will talk about antibiotics for cattle - a medicine that every breeder turns to for help sooner or later, since without using these funds it is simply impossible to cure some diseases. We will also tell you how to give an antibiotic to calves, young animals, adult cattle and cows after calving.
The importance of antibiotics for cattle
Antibiotics are drugs widely used in veterinary medicine to eliminate diseases of various spectra. Their significance for livestock is as follows:
- elimination of various infections in the body of cattle, as well as the fight against diseases;
- biologically active substances can serve as an additional type of feed for livestock, and this, accordingly, reduces the costs that need to be spent on feed. In this case, the drugs are used in small doses. With their help, the animal’s immunity increases, the mortality rate decreases, so that the farmer can bring his farm to a new positive level of activity;
- drugs can increase the metabolism of the animal, which is beneficially reflected not only in the increase in body weight, but also contributes to the increase in the final amount of farm products. This ability of veterinary drugs helps to avoid losses in animal husbandry.
Despite the list of positive qualities, there are some risks associated with the use of antibiotics for the treatment of cattle. In the case of improper and irrational use of drugs, the expected benefits can result in harm. So, it is not recommended to use these funds to eliminate the diseases of pregnant cows, since this can harm both the cow itself and the future calf (in particular, cause its pathologies and even death). Substances from some drugs may be in milk, which can also harm the dairy calf or the person who consumes the milk.
Important! You can not interrupt the treatment of cows or other animals with an antibiotic when they see the improvement in the health of their wards. The course must be brought to an end so as not to provoke a relapse.
Let us consider in more detail the main antibiotic complexes, the purpose of their use in the process of raising cattle, and also how to properly give them to calves.
This complex is used to improve metabolism in the animal’s body, activate the body’s resistance, and increase feed utilization. Thanks to this, the growth and development of cows and calves is accelerated. The immunity of animals is strengthened, which helps to reduce the incidence.Feed antibiotics have a beneficial effect on the intestinal microflora of cattle, hormonal and digestive systems, contribute to better absorption of vitamins and minerals contained in food.
Important! Despite the positive effect, part of the drug can be ingested in meat and milk, therefore it is forbidden to use this complex for feeding cows, cows after calving, and also small calves. Also, one day before the slaughter of cattle, it is strictly recommended to exclude food containing these funds from the animal's diet.
- 5-10 days - 5 g of the drug in food;
- 11-30 days - 6 g;
- 31-60 days — 8 g;
- 61–120 days - 10 g.
To stimulate growth
Accelerating growth in order to make a quick profit is one of the main tasks that the breeder sets himself. At the same time, the quality of the resulting meat products must comply with all the required standards. The organization of proper care for the calf from the first days of his birth will help to achieve this goal. Young growth should receive the right amount of vitamins, trace elements that will help direct its development in the right direction and add the desired growth rate.To achieve their goals, farmers often resort to various stimulants, the so-called growth hormones. These drugs accelerate the growth of cattle, increase the rates of milk yield and meat products.
Important! There are two groups of growth stimulants: internal - they develop the calf’s body from the inside, they accelerate development processes without disturbing their natural course, that is, they prepare the body for rapid development; external - their action is aimed at the calf gaining weight quickly, but his body is not ready for future changes.
For the treatment of diseases
The main purpose of antibiotic drugs in animal husbandry is the treatment of cattle diseases.
A lot of trouble and trouble for both the cow and its owner brings the disease with mastitis. The disease affects the udder of the cow and can change its structure: it provokes the compaction of breast tissue.
Outwardly, this is expressed by swelling of the nipples, the udder and affected areas turn red. The animal has a fever, it feels severe pain. The cause of this disease is staphylococcal infection.This condition of the cow is reflected in the quality of milk: it becomes liquid, there are precipitation, the structure resembling flakes. When the disease passes into a purulent stage, blood clots or even pus appear in the milk.
Important! Milk from a patient with mastitis should be disposed of; they should never drink a calf or sell it.
To make an accurate diagnosis, a milk analysis is done and antibiotic treatment is prescribed, which include Ampicillin, Cloxacillin. The cow is given an injection: the medicine is injected into the focus of the disease, that is, into the area of the breast that is affected by the disease. An injection should be done every 8 hours, and with the advanced form of the disease - every 5 hours.
Cows during lactation are injected with Exid, Ceftonite. These are new drugs that are quickly excreted from milk.
A dangerous disease of cattle is leptospirosis, the bacteria of which carry rodents. The disease is accompanied by fever, intoxication of the body, damage to the internal organs of the animal (in particular, the liver). May result in death.For the treatment of the disease, the veterinary drug Azidine 7% is used. Its dose is calculated depending on the weight of the animal: 4 mg of the drug will be needed per 1 kg of body weight of the “patient”. Azidine is administered as an injection under the skin on the first and third day of illness.
Streptomycin also helps to eliminate leptospirosis: it is administered intramuscularly. The dose is 10-12 units of medicine / 1 kg of body weight. The frequency of injections is every 12 hours. The course of treatment is 4–5 days.
Did you know? There are various forms of antibiotic drugs: tablets, injections, ointments, sprays. Despite the form in which the drug enters the body, it quickly penetrates the bloodstream and is transported to all organs.
This disease relates to chronic infectious diseases of humans and animals. Its presence is indicated by granulomatous foci, fistulas, abscesses that appear on different organs and tissues. If treatment is not started in time, a generalized form of the disease can develop that affects the kidneys, liver, lungs, brain, and other organs.
Treatment of the disease without antibiotics is not possible. Effective remedy - Oxytetracycline (at a dose of 400 units for adult cattle, calves who are not yet a year old, reduce the dose by 2 times).
You can also use Polymyxin: 900 units of the drug must be diluted in 20 ml of novocaine solution (0.5%). Injections are done every 10 days.
Popular broad-spectrum antibiotic manufacturers
The article has already mentioned the importance of choosing a quality drug that will help to quickly achieve the desired result without harming the body of both cattle and a person who consumes farm products. Consider which manufacturers of broad-spectrum antibiotics are the most popular.
Tetracycline is an antibiotic that belongs to the group of one of the most used drugs in veterinary medicine for the fight against infectious diseases provoked by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
It was first isolated in 1945 from the radiant fungus Streptomyces aureofaciens.
The base of the drug is a light yellow crystalline powder, poorly soluble in water. The drug is released in the form of a powder, tablets or capsules.
With prolonged use to prevent inflammation of the mucous membranes (candidiasis) in cattle, the drug is also used in the form of dragees.
In the sphere of influence of the antibiotic:
- anthrax microbes;
- E. coli;
- pasteurella and others
Did you know? Proteins of cow's milk are able to bind toxins in the human body, so people working in harmful industries get milk.
Theoretically, the activity of 1 mg of the drug is 1 UNIT, and the shelf life when stored in a dry, dark place is 2 years. The maximum concentration of the drug in the blood is created 2-3 hours after administration and is maintained at the required level up to 12 hours. For effective exposure, the required dose of the drug in the blood is 0.5-1.5 μg / ml.Tetracycline is used for anthrax, streptococcosis, pneumonia, salmonellosis, colibacteriosis, leptospirosis, diplococcal septicemia, coccidiosis, wound infections, and others. The drug is also prescribed for malignant edema, emphysematous carbosis, acne, acne.
Important! According to its activity on gram-positive bacteria, it is second only to Penicillin.
The first use of penicillins began in 1941 due to the discovery by Alexander Fleming of the antibacterial effect in preparations from penicillin mushrooms.
Penicillin is a white crystalline powder that consists of penicillin salts with an activity of 1666 IU per 1 mg. The drug’s bonds are rapidly destroyed under the influence of chemical (acids, including stomach, alkalis, alcohols) and physical (high temperature, sun rays) factors. The drug is highly soluble, due to which it is widely used intramuscularly. As a solvent for intramuscular use, Novocain and Amidopyrine solutions are used. Also, the blood of healthy animals, distilled water and a 0.9% sodium chloride solution are used as a solvent.
Important! Animals in which allergic reactions to any of the preparations were observed are strictly forbidden to use the entire range of penicillins in any form.
Penicillins are used for anthrax, necrobacteriosis, pasteurellosis, pneumonia, mastitis, pleurisy, bronchitis, metritis, wound infections, otitis media, sepsis, actinomycosis, emphysematous carbuncle, streptococcal septicemia, etc.
The disadvantage of such drugs is the initiation of allergic reactions up to anaphylactic shock and death, with the introduction of large doses and prolonged use.
The suspension is intended for the treatment of cattle for postpartum endometritis, necrobacillosis, and infectious diseases of the respiratory system. The color of the suspension is yellow or light brown, is available in bottles of glass or polymer.
The main constituent is ceftiofur hydrochloride. The composition also contains additional funds in the form of cottonseed oil, pyrogen-free water, sorbitan monooleate.
Ceftiocline can be treated only after the recommendation of the veterinarian who examined the sick animal. The dosage is 1 ml / 50 kg of cattle under the skin or intramuscularly 1 time in 24 hours. The duration of treatment depends on the type of disease:
- endometritis - 5 days;
- necrobacteriosis - 3 days;
- respiratory diseases - 3-5 days.
Important! It is strictly forbidden to breed other drugs in the same syringe with Ceftiocline.
The tool is used to fight infections of the respiratory system, genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, joints, skin, soft tissues, navel of cattle, as well as for the treatment of necrobacteriosis, atrophic rhinitis. The drug is released in the form of a suspension for injection, which is located in glass bottles, packed in packs of cardboard.
The effectiveness of the drug lies in the fact that its basis is the synthesis of Amoxicillin and Gentamicin.
Gestam is administered to a sick animal once every 24 hours. The dosage is calculated based on the weight of the "patient": 1 ml of suspension / 10 kg of weight. The bottle must be shaken vigorously before opening.
Important! The drug is contraindicated in pregnant cows, as well as animals suffering from renal failure, auditory nerve neuritis, myasthenia gravis. You can start treatment only under the supervision of a veterinarian.
The veterinary product is based on ofloxacin and excipients (benzyl alcohol, propylene glycol, cyclamate, saccharin, aspartame, cremophor, essential oil, potassium hydroxide).
Available in the form of a solution of light yellow or dark yellow in glass or polymer bottles. It is intended for use orally. Oflosan has antibacterial and antimycoplasmic effects. It inhibits the development and growth of many bacteria of gram-positive and gram-negative species.
Important! The highest concentration of Oflosan after oral administration is observed in the kidneys, liver and lungs.
Can I drink milk while using antibiotics
You can not drink milk during treatment with a dairy cow antibiotic drug. Veterinarians insist that milk can be eaten after 14-18 days from the time of taking the drug, so buy dairy products from trusted and conscientious sellers. In addition, products sold on the market must undergo laboratory tests.As you can see, today you can easily cure cattle from various types of diseases with the help of antibiotic drugs. The main thing is to start treatment in a timely manner and organize it correctly. This will help the veterinarian. In addition, antibiotics can increase the profitability of the farm, because with their help you can increase milk yield, quickly grow young animals and get the expected profit from livestock farming. But in this matter, it is important not to overdo it and, instead of the expected benefits, not to receive losses and harm.