Karachaevskaya breed of horses: description, pros and cons of keeping
Representatives of the Karachay breed are considered one of the most beautiful horses in the world. Information about the strengths and weaknesses of these horses, about the features of their content, you will find in this material.
Origin of breed
In addition to the fact that this breed has a beautiful exterior, it is also one of the oldest. The mountains of the northern part of the Greater Caucasus, the regions today belonging to the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, are considered her homeland. The breed was bred with the involvement of oriental horses. The first records of the breed date back to the 17th century.
As a result of long-term breeding, an animal with a short stature, a hardy one, capable of moving along stony slopes and breathing rarefied air high in the mountains, resistant and quickly adapting to environmental conditions, was bred.
Did you know? Karachay horses were used by Russian troops for long crossings in the mountains. ATabout the time of the Russo-Turkish war in 1877 bMore than 100 horses crossed the hardest Maruh pass and passed 160 km. And in the twentieth century - 3 thousand km in 47 days, and walked on areas covered with 3-meter snow.
Undoubtedly, the living conditions in the mountains affected the appearance of the horses. Initially, they were bred as work horses, so they have a massive physique and strong legs. All the distinguishing features of the exterior are summarized in the table:
|Height at the withers||152-200 cm|
|Body length||156 cm|
|Chest circumference||187 cm|
|Metacarpal circumference||19.1 cm|
|Suit||bay is most common; red, black, gray, karakova is found; rare - bulanic, roan, pinto|
|Head||medium in size, dry, hunchbacked|
|Ears||medium in size, pointed|
|Neck||medium in length, muscular|
|Croup||short, wide, slightly deflated|
|Tail||thick, long, sometimes wavy|
|Limbs||front - set wide, slightly clubbed; rear - set correctly, sometimes saber fencers|
|Hooves||strong, regular shape|
Karachay horses are obedient and loyal to the owner. However, they are brave. They do not cause much trouble, patient, hardworking, smart, resistant to disease, hardy. They can eat any food and live in harsh conditions. They have a quick reaction.
Did you know? In the Stalinist days, when the Karachai people were subject to repression, the Karachai breed was called Kabardian. The original name was returned to her after 40 years - in 1980. Although today, some people claim that the Karachay breed is just a myth.
Pros and Cons of Content
The maintenance of Karachai horses has a number of advantages, but it is not without drawbacks.
- If you are planning an institution of this particular breed, then you need to know that its advantages are:
- Good immunity.
- High fecundity.
- Use in the highlands.
- Fitness for herd keeping.
- The ability to easily acclimatize.
- Soft step.
The breed is divided into 3 types:
- horse riding;
- riding in a team;
- grazing farm animals;
- mountain tourism;
- transport work.
Riding horses are the tallest. Used for:
- in tourism;
- for breeding work;
- at the border service;
- take part in competitions, exhibitions.
The current state of the breed
Today, Karachai horses are mainly bred on 17 farms in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, as well as abroad. In 2006, there were about 20 thousand individuals in the homeland of the breed. Demand for this breed is increasing every year.
To date, 8 tribal lines are known:
- Dausus. The most common line. Its representatives are distinguished by their massiveness and strong physique, amazing stamina and high fecundity. A promising line Dubochka was formed from it.
- Borea. Another numerous line. The horses belonging to her are characterized by high growth and gentle running.
- Kobchik. Representatives of this line have a dry constitution and are quick.
- Orlik. These horses are massive, strong and very hardy.
- Argamak. Representatives grow taller than 160 cm. They have massive legs. Among them, mostly bay suits are found.
- Tugan. Suspended in development, since no worthy successors were found.
- Pledge. Stallions are characterized by increased performance, good horse-riding characteristics, a strong constitution.
- Arsenal. Small ruler. It is considered a reference.
Breeding and care
Despite the fact that Karachai horses are unpretentious, they still require minimal care and the provision of a stable with certain parameters. Only an animal kept in the right conditions, receiving high-quality balanced feed and care, can well perform the tasks that a person entrusts to him.
Horses can be kept:
- in the stall;
- in groups;
- in the stalls.
The door to the stall should be no longer than 1.5 m. In the opening of this size it will be convenient for the owner to start and withdraw the horse. All parts of the stall must be durable and, if necessary, withstand the impact of the hoof.The horse box For normal lighting, it is necessary that the stables have large windows, preferably placed 2 meters above the floor. When calculating the number and size of window openings, one should proceed from the fact that the ratio of the total area of windows to the area of the room should be 1 to 15.
Be sure to have artificial lighting in the stable. At the same time, it is important to ensure that the wiring can not get the horse.
Normally, the stable should maintain the temperature in winter at +8 ... + 11 ° С, in summer - up to +23 ° С. The optimum humidity is 60–75%. Temperature and optimum humidity are controlled by a high-quality ventilation system. It can be of 3 types:
- Natural - with the help of windows and doors.
- Supply and exhaust - with the help of special openings under the roof.
- Mechanical - working with fans that are forced to turn on by a person.
- from expanded clay tile.
- manger for hay;
- feeder for juicy and concentrated feed;
- feeder for mineral additives and a drinking bowl.
The diet of horses includes such feeds:
- rough (hay, straw, haylage, branches);
- juicy (silage, root crops, tubers, vegetables, fruits);
- cereals (oats, barley);
- green (meadow grass);
- concentrated (oat, barley, beetroot concentrates, bran, cake, meal, bagasse).
Important! Control the quality of the feed before giving it to the animal. The presence of dust in the hay threatens the development of diseases of the respiratory organs, the presence of mold can provoke serious poisoning.
- 10-15 kg of hay;
- 4–5 kg of concentrated feed;
- 1-2 kg of bran;
- 2-3 kg of succulent feed.
- a piece of chalk;
- bone meal;
- dicalcium phosphate;
- disodium phosphate;
- fish fat;
- 7 kg of hay;
- 7 kg of haylage;
- 5 kg of silage;
- 5 kg of oats;
- 50 g premixes;
- 40 g of salt.
First you need to feed the horse with hay, then succulent feed, and finally - grain. Coarse feed is distributed in portions for the whole day - first divided into halves, one of which will need to be fed before bedtime. The remaining half is divided into 2 parts and given in the morning and evening.
Important! If you cannot independently calculate the amount of necessary feed and mineral supplements per day, then you should seek the advice of a competent veterinarian who will write down the menu, taking into account all the characteristics of your horse.
- wheat bran;
- sprouted oats;
- a piece of chalk;
- lily of the valley;
- clover (in large quantities);
- clover (in large quantities);
- rice and wheat bran (in large quantities).
Important! After the horse has eaten, it is possible to start work on it no earlier than in 1.5–2 hours.
Around the clock, the horse should have access to clean, fresh and cold water. In winter, it should be no lower than +14 ... + 16 ° С. On the day of one individual, 3-5 buckets of water will be required. Be sure to drink the horse 30 minutes before eating.
Care and hygiene
Caring for a horse involves:
- combing mane and tail;
- brushing wool;
- hoof cleaning;
- dental care;
- anthelmintic measures;
- preventive veterinary examinations.
Hair care is a great time to communicate with the animal. He needs to speak affectionate words, praise, admire. Wool cleaning is done every day.
Video: Horse Shine
Daily need to clean and hooves. This will require a special hook.
You can bathe the animal in open water sources or in the shower. Horses love this process.
Often the owner should pay attention to the condition of the horse’s teeth. At least 1 time per year, the animal must be examined by a veterinarian in order to timely detect and begin treatment of a health problem.
Manure in the stable needs to be cleaned daily. This will require:
- dung forks;
- shovel forks.
It is advisable to start education from an early age. However, since horses are distinguished by intelligence and quick wisdom, even in adulthood, with proper master behavior and knowledge of the psychology and behavior of the horse, you can achieve the desired results.
The merits of the Karachai breed have already been appreciated by many people in various countries. These horses are able to survive in ascetic conditions, but they gratefully respond to high-quality feed and improved life.