How to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse: the best varieties, planting dates
Tomatoes are quite popular vegetables that children and adults like to eat. However, to be completely confident in their quality, it is better to learn how to grow them yourself. If you even have a small piece of land and time, and most importantly desire, our article will help you become the owner of a harvest of greenhouse tomatoes grown by your own hands.
Optimal conditions for planting tomatoes in a greenhouse
During the cultivation of tomatoes in greenhouses, all conditions must be observed, starting from the stage of emergence of sprouts and ending with fruiting. To do this, install thermometers both outside and inside.
In the greenhouse, the temperature is monitored at three levels:
- the soil;
- height 1.5 m;
- under the roof.
When the greenhouse is large, it is recommended to install thermometers on each row. Outside, temperature measuring devices are mounted near the ground and at a height of 1.5 m. All this will allow you to adjust not only the temperature, but also the humidity in the greenhouse.
The excess of hot air is regulated by through ventilation, and the lack of heat is compensated by additional heating of the building or soil. The optimum temperature varies depending on the stage of ripening. Before flowering:
- in the daytime - +18 ... + 22 ° C;
- at night - + 16 ... + 18 ° С.
- in the afternoon - + 26 ... + 32 ° C;
- at night - +14 ... + 16 ° С.
Did you know? The tomato contains serotonin, the hormone of happiness, so with it you can improve your mood without consuming harmful carbohydrates.
It is important that the temperature does not fall below average, a value of +10 ° C will slow growth and even lead to death. High temperature is also fatal. Throughout the growing season, soil moisture should be within 80%, and air humidity - 65%.
Plants need to be planted only at a certain distance, the only way to ensure the necessary air circulation and access of light. These indicators are related to the variety. The average for high tomatoes is 55 cm, and for small - 35 cm.
What varieties of tomatoes are best planted in a greenhouse
Today many varieties are bred, but not all can be grown in greenhouses. Consider which tomatoes are suitable for planting in different buildings.
Greenhouse with a film
The following determinant varieties and hybrids can be grown in it:
- "The Pink Tsar";
- "Scarlet Mustang";
- “Trivet F1”;
- "Yvet F1";
- "Minaret F1";
- "Silhouette F1";
- "Hlynovsky F1".
Glass greenhouse or polycarbonate
It is recommended to plant such indeterminate varieties and hybrids:
- “Bull’s heart”;
- "Pink Elephant";
- "Cow's heart";
- Mikado Pink.
For such buildings, the following grades are chosen:
- "Southern tan";
- The Golden Queen
- "Happiness F1";
- Alcazar F1
- "Titanic F1";
Dates of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse
The best dates should be determined by referring to the climate of the region and the prevailing weather. Professionals know that in greenhouses planting is carried out at a different time, unlike open ground, depending on the quality of the shelter.
Important! It is forbidden to purchase tomato seeds at promotions or sales, as most often in this way they try to sell expired material. In addition, unpopular seeds of poor quality may be presented there.
For ordinary greenhouses, the approximate dates in spring are as follows:
- with the possibility of heating - the end of April;
- without heating - the beginning of May.
Dates shift if your region is not in the middle lane.
How to plant tomatoes in greenhouses
Planting tomatoes requires a competent approach.To increase the survival rate of seedlings and get the maximum possible yield, you need to know what actions need to be done for this.
This stage is very important, since it depends on how quickly the seedlings can adapt to the new conditions of the closed soil and what kind of crop you will get as a result.
After the construction of the cascade, the greenhouse is covered with two layers of film. To maintain heat and extend the life of the lower layer, the distance between them should be 2 cm. To avoid freezing due to possible temperature changes, the upper layer is left until the beginning of summer.In addition, in the greenhouse it is mandatory to equip the windows. They should be placed on the sides and top.
For the growth of bushes and a good harvest, tomatoes need good light. If there is no way to build a greenhouse away from the shade of trees and buildings, it is important to provide artificial light using lamps placed above the roof.
Did you know? Minerals in tomatoes can solve the problem of split ends and brittle nails. To do this, it is enough to make masks with the juice of this vegetable.
For good growth and harvest, experts recommend replacing the ground before planting, or at least its top layer is about 10 cm. After it, it is treated with a hot solution based on copper sulfate. For its preparation, 10 g of fertilizer are taken per 10 l of water.
7 days before planting, they prepare beds. Their height should be 30 cm and a width of 80 cm. It is recommended to leave passages between the rows of approximately 65 cm.
For tomatoes use loamy or clay soil. Peat, humus and sawdust are added to it in equal amounts. Consumption should be as follows: per 1 sq. Km. m make 30 l of the mixture. If peat is used for planting tomatoes, it is recommended to add humus, turfy soil, sand and sawdust to it. The proportion is as follows: 1: 1: 0.5: 1.
Before landing, it is recommended to make:
- 60 g of granular superphosphates;
- 20 g of potassium sulfate;
- 20 g of potassium magnesia;
- 10 g of sodium nitrate;
- 30 g of wood ash.
The preparation of seedlings includes the following activities:
- Hardening. Start in 14 days. At this time, reduce the frequency and amount of water that is used for irrigation, and take out the seedlings in rooms with a temperature of +10 ° C.
- Top dressing. For 7 days make a solution, which consists of 10 liters of water and 300 g of wood ash.
- If there are already flowers on the seedlings, they are 4 days in advance using a manual spray gun sprayed with boric acid (10 g per 1 liter of water).
All this reduces the risk of not surviving in a new place. The readiness of seedlings for transplantation is evidenced by a purple hue of the inner side of the leaves. 2 days before planting, leaves are removed that may appear in the ground after planting. This will make it easier to root and form brushes.
Important! If the seedlings are very long, the tops are cut off, the lower leaves are removed from them and put in water. In a few days, roots will appear, and as a result, new planting material.
Depending on the variety of tomatoes, as well as the structural features, several planting options are known that experienced gardeners use.
You can place seedlings in the following ways:
- In the spread. They dig a furrow, its depth should be approximately 10 cm. Seedlings are laid horizontally along the trench. Above the ground, only the tops and inflorescences should remain. All leaves below are cleaned, and stepsons dive. This method is ideal for tall varieties.
- Snake way. Dig a hole (depth 25 cm). All seedlings are cut off from seedlings up to branches with flowers. The seedling is placed roots down, and the trunk is neatly laid on the walls of the pit.The earth that remains after digging is mixed with ash and humus and a hole is poured. The entire underground part will take root and will absorb more nutrients. The method is good for fast-growing varieties.
- In a plastic sleeve. Used for faster adaptation of seedlings. A seedling is planted in a hole, a plastic sleeve is put on it, the edges are hidden in the ground. The result is a kind of cocoon. A hole is made for fresh air and watering. Use for low tomatoes.
In addition, there are various landing schemes. Each is selected for different varieties and certain buildings.
Consider the distance at which seedlings are planted in each scheme:
- Private (classic). The distance between the rows is on average 40 cm, and between the holes - 25 cm.
- Two-line. Used for varieties whose bushes consist of several stems. The distance between the bushes and rows is an average of 50 cm. It is recommended to plant rows in turn.
- Nest. A fairly old way, a scheme familiar to all gardeners. A distance of 80 cm must be maintained between the nests, and 60 cm along. In each nest, 3 bushes are planted in the form of an isosceles triangle.
- Two-line tape. Seedlings are planted in 2 lines. The distance between the plants is 25 cm, and between the rows - 70 cm. The next two-line tape is formed after 1 m.
Did you know? So that all the nutrients available in the tomato are absorbed, it is recommended to use them with products containing a fatty base.
How to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse
Despite the large number of diverse crops, only a few can be planted with tomatoes.
- These include the following:
- legumes (beans, beans);
- cabbage and salads;
- onion and garlic;
Tomato care in the greenhouse
Despite the fact that tomatoes are self-pollinating plants, they can be helped a little. To do this, choose a sunny day and shake the brushes with flowers lightly. In addition, tomatoes in greenhouses need the following care, which will be discussed later.
Fertilizers and watering
To obtain the maximum yield, it is important to conduct timely top dressing. Already with the appearance of ovaries make the first fertilizer. Potassium monophosphate is added at this time. The solution is prepared from 10 l of water and 20 g of substance. The following dressing is carried out after 10 days.
In addition, good results show foliar top dressing.
With their help, you can:
- get an early harvest;
- nourish the plant;
- avoid disease.
For these purposes, urea, calcium nitrate, potassium monophosphate are used. You need to make them every week. Better to do it in the evening.
Moisture is equally important. Watering is recommended every 5 days. It is important not to overmoisten the soil, since the result will be a decrease in fleshiness, in addition, they will be acidic and watery.
Step-planting and bush formation
After the period of adaptation, it is imperative to inspect the bushes for the appearance of stepsons. Similar processes appear from the axils of the leaves.The stepsoning procedure is carried out using the following recommendations:
- small processes are pinched off with hands;
- if the length is more than 5 cm, it is better to use a pruner;
- the stepson is removed not at the base, but leaving a stump;
- doing such manipulations is better in the morning;
- watering can not be carried out immediately field removal of processes.
Important! You can not neglect pinching, since the processes will pick up nutrients and interfere with the formation of ovaries. It is better to carry out the procedure every 10 days.
The formation of a bush in indeterminate varieties is carried out in 1 stem.
The procedure includes the following actions:
- removal of all stepsons every week;
- leave no more than 10 ovaries on the bush;
- when their number has accumulated, pinch the upper part of the bush;
- when the stem is bifurcated, one of the processes is removed.
To increase the yield, you can not plant additional bushes, but leave one large lower stepson on existing ones. Over time, it will turn into the second trunk of the bush. However, no more than 5 ovaries can be left on it.
Tomatoes of determinant varieties are selected for small greenhouses. Bushes stop growing after the formation of a certain number of ovaries. Each grade has a different indicator. To increase the yield, bushes can be formed into several stems.
Most of the processes are removed so that the fruits ripen faster and do not lose weight. Pinch the top of the bush after the appearance of 5 brushes of tomatoes.All main branches and the stem should be tied so that they do not break under the weight of the fruits. To do this, use stakes or build trellises.
Finish the formation of bushes before August 1. After this, all inflorescences are necessarily removed, as they will inhibit the ripening of already formed fruits.
Possible growing difficulties
Despite the confined space, tomatoes can be subject to certain diseases and pest attacks.
Consider which are the most common and how to deal with them:
- Blackleg. The disease can be prevented by changing the topsoil before planting.
- Late blight. For prophylaxis, a certain treatment is carried out using a garlic solution or the Zaslon preparation.
- Brown leaf spot. The treatment is carried out with a Bordeaux mixture or with the “Barrier” preparation.
- Mosaic. Not treated. The diseased bush is removed, and the place is disinfected.
- Rot or white coating. Conduct systematic dusting with wood ash.
- From pests get rid of the same methods as when growing in open ground.
As can be seen from the above, despite many nuances, it is not difficult to grow tomatoes on your plot in greenhouse conditions. The main thing is to have a desire to feed your loved ones with delicious fruits, and then you will succeed.